Information support of the State Innovation Policy provided by
the Ministry of Industry, Science and Technologies of the
N. I. Kharichev, PH.D.- Deputy Head of Department of International Cooperation, Ministry of Industry, Science and Technology of Russia
State innovation policy. As world practice witnesses, revival of industries in countries that have passed through economic crises is fostered, as a rule, by intensification of innovation processes.
Creation of favorable condition facilitation innovative processes is, primarily, the concern of state power bodies. Analysis of the national science and technology policies of countries pursuing efficient innovation policy (the USA, Great Britain, the FRG, China, Australia) shows that formation of effective mechanisms of interaction between the public and private sectors of economy in science-intensive industries is its key point. Tax and customs systems, legal framework providing for fair competition and protection of intellectual property rights foster motivation stimulating the participants of innovation process – scientists and developers, producers and investors – to speed up implementation of R&D results.
Market regulation of innovative activity must go together with state one manifesting itself, primarily, in stimulation of these processes, creation of favorable legal and financial conditions of their development, as well as in support at initial stages of innovative projects realization when their commercial value has not been proven yet.
At the same time state support of commercial projects that have already taken shape and directly oriented to commercial and organizational participation of interested market subjects. That is why, when developing a specific technology of state support of innovative projects oriented to R&D results commercialization, the activity of the MIST of Russia proceeds from the following 3 main principles:
In the year 2001 the MIST of Russia has also held such a contest on four thematic lines with participation of the Russian Fund of Technological Development, Fund for Assistance to Small Businesses in Science and Technology Sphere, Ministry of Industry and Science of the Moscow Region, Association of Siberia and Far East Towns and American Corporation Russian Technology Initiative. The main objectives of the contest were promotion of R&D results to introduce them into practice and bring to the market, as well as attraction of funding for these ends, employing also foreign sources. At that, the following kinds of state support were provided:
The Interdepartmental program of facilitation of innovation activity in science and technology sphere for 2001-2003 is a structure-forming system to promote R&D results to the market as competitive products. Leading ministries, federal funds, other organizations, as well as subjects of the Russian Federation take part in the Program. Innovation-technological centers (ITC) that have gained credibility in the world practice are used in the Program as effective footholds of innovative activity grows. They are capable of developing and fabricating science products on self-financing basis since the very start.
Information support is an indispensable element on an innovation infrastructure development. Work is conducted to develop the Network information-analytical base of innovative projects and Information-Consulting Center in the Internet on R&D results commercialization and innovative activity support. At present they are being expanded into Russia’s regions.
The problems of information resources in the sphere of the R&D and innovation. Improving efficiency of use of science developments is an important aspect of state policy of all industrial nations. It is a special significance to Russia as interaction between basic science and applied R&D, as well as implementation of the results in manufacturing is the weakest link.
At the same time maintaining of science and R&D potential requires a definite level of information medium both by the amount of documentation funds and by the development of communications and network providing S&T support to researchers.
At the beginning of 90-th the issues of information support for the Russian science are especially acute, which is explained by:
In this period the real budget funding of scientific information activities has gone down more dramatically than expenditure on science. A bigger part of industrial R&D information systems have lost their main source of financing: the ministries’ funds. The acute financial situation has caused a significant outflow of scientific information personnel, problems in compiling documentation funds. Lack of legal regulation of information flows, a half in general state registration of research results and developments have significantly reduced the volume of informational funds.
At the same time, as a result of relaxing secrecy regime, expanding contacts with foreign scientists many obstacles on the way of information exchange within the country and with the outside world have been removed.
There have appeared in Russia first structures of advanced information technologies. Electronic banks and S&T data bases have started forming.
The following directions of state regulation of S&T information sphere was proposed by the MST of Russia as the most important:
Issue of economic relations in the S&T information sphere require serious attention: accurate division between spheres of free information services, state and commercial prices of services, free access to information provided by state research organization if it does not damage national interests, maintaining the existing free library services.
Taking into consideration these problems in 1997 the Statute of the State System of S&T Information was adopted by the Government of Russian Federation.
The State system of scientific and technical information represents an aggregate of scientific and technical libraries and organizations, legal persons irrespective of their form of ownership and agency’s subordination, specializing an acquisition and processing of scientific and technical information and cooperation among themselves.
The state system of scientific and technical information is designed to ensure formation and effective utilization of state resources of scientific and technical information, their integration in global information space and to promote creation of the market of information products and services.
Bodies of scientific and technical information, scientific and technical libraries and centers provide for acquisition, storage, and processing of domestic and foreign sources of information, formation, management and organization of use of federal. Industry’s and regional information resources (funds), databases and databanks.
The list of the most important organizations referred to as federal bodies of scientific and technical information present below:
The All-Russia Scientific and Technical Information Center;
The All-Russia Institute of Interindustry Information;
The Russian Association of Information Resources of Scientific and Technical Development (ROSINFORMRESURCE) The All-Russia Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of the Russian Academy of Science(RAS);
The State Public Scientific and Technical Library, The Library of the RAS,
The Library of Natural Sciences of the RAS, and the State Public Scientific and Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of RAS;
The All-Russia Research Institute of Information and Technology and economic Research of the Agro-Industrial Complex of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the RF and the Central Scientific Agricultural Library of the RAS;
The All-Russia State Research Institute of Control, Standards, and Certification of Veterinary Preparations of the Ministry of Agriculture;
The All-Russia Research Institute of Scientific and Technological Progress and Information in Civil Engineering and Architecture;
The Federal Fund of State Standards, General Russian Classifiers of Technical and Economic Information, International (Regional) Standards, Rules, Norms and Recommendations on Standardization, National Standards of Foreign States;
The Federal Institute of Industrial Property and Information and Publishing Center of the Russian Agency of Patents and Trademarks;
The All-Russia Research Institute of Problems of Machine-Building and Ail Russia Research Institute of Standardization;
All-Russia research Center of Standardization. Information, and Certification of Raw Material, Materials and Substances.
These organizations, information centers and libraries represent the one of the important part of the scientific and technical information support of the R&D and innovative activities.
The MIST of Russia concentrates the main attention to setting up of a telecommunication infrastructure to exchange information, support to existing information networks and their compatibility with global networks, provision of access for Russian scientists and researches to the world riches of scientific and HI-Tech knowledge.
Introduction of new information technologies will enable to organize continuous monitoring of science and technology potential including such its aspects as statistics of science and innovations, restructuring the systems of R&D organizations, more oriented on the industrial-innovative results both at the federal and regional levels.
Exhibitions of innovations are one of the main tools of novel promising technologies and science-intensive products promotion. At present exhibitions, salons, presentations of different innovative projects play a significant role in development of market relations in Russia. The MIST of Russia devotes very special attention to this activity. Specifically, the Moscow International Salon of Innovations to be held this February for the second time, along with other similar events, is intended to facilitate formation of high technologies and promising developments market in Russia. The Salon offers broad opportunities to managers in the area of innovative activities to employ their skills, and chances to obtain practical knowledge to would-be specialists in this field.
Holding such events testifies to the fact that Russia is gradually overcoming the economic crisis, and innovative activity in the economy is growing.
As the major organizer of the Salon the MIST of Russia devotes special attention to application of modern technologies in the exhibition activities. To improve efficiency of work in the stated area the State Coordination-Analytical Center of Exhibition Events was set up in the framework of the Federal Research Center for Project Evaluation and Consulting (FRCEC).
The State Coordination-Analytical Center of Exhibition Events consists of four sectors:
This structure enables to ensure holding of the innovative exhibition events envisaged in the plan of the MIST of Russia. It should be noted that the Center participates in preparation and holding of joint events with domestic and foreign exhibitions organizers. Electronic mail and opportunities provided by the Internet global network are broadly used in the work. According to the rating data provided by the Toplist search system, the Web server of the FRCEC for many years has firmly been occupying the second place in Russia among servers of scientific and educational organizations, that is, also by the number of inquiries (more than 200 thousand a month). Application of information technologies enables to quickly inform potential foreign and domestic exhibition organizers and participants about the activity of the Organizing committee, participants makeup, to conduct promotional campaigns, etc.
A very important part of the activity is organizational-analytical work, which incorporates providing practical assistance to participants of exhibition events in preparation of expositions displaying competitive developments, technologies and innovative projects, in identification of potential customers and investors.
One of essential requirements to meet when making up an exhibition exposition is that it should be supported by science-and-practice conferences, seminars, presentations of innovative projects. Such events enable the exhibition participants in more detail and with more expertise to present the developments to investors and producers, give well-grounded estimates of scientific research development in different branches of knowledge or of prospects for commercial implementation of offered innovative projects. It is at this particular stage that contacts between scientists, bankers and manufacturers can and should be fostered.
Training and retraining of specialists for innovation activity is an important state task. It is the project managers, who ensure efficient technologies commercialization. The MIST jointly with the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Labor of Russia is developing a multilevel systems of training managers for innovative activity in science and technology sphere. 8 special courses have been designed to improve qualification and retrain personnel in science and technology sphere.
In 1999-2000 the multilevel system provided training to over 25 hundred people from scientific organizations, innovation-technological centers, small innovation enterprises, technoparks, business-incubators. The plan for 2001 was to reach the level of 4 thousand trainees not only from science and technology sphere, but also from manufacture. The Russian State University of Innovative technologies and Entrepreneurship set up jointly by the Ministry of Industry, Science and Technologies of Russia and the Ministry of Education of Russia has become the central link of the multilevel system. At present its affiliates are functioning in 11 regions of the Russian Federation.
In March 2001 in Helsinki the OECD jointly with the MIST of Russia held a special seminar on transfer to Russia of the most valuable experience of the OCCD member-countries in creation of national innovation systems. One of the conclusions made at the seminar was the assumption that there is no single universal efficient system for all countries. Each country ought to develop its own system with regard to its specific conditions employing world experience in formation of its key elements. But information activities is an important aspect of international cooperation. A number of innovation projects require active cooperation of scientists from different countries.
In a context of the World problem the International Library, Information and Analytical Center could become on the base of its information possibilities and infrastructure the relevant device of support of the Russian Innovation Policy provided by the MIST of Russia within the framework of international technological and information cooperation.
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